Outlines the four main distributive typologies of school buildings in Italy, which are strongly characterized by their periods of construction: stand-alone masonry buildings, reinforced concrete framed structures, university buildings, and historical or monumental buildings. The seismic reliability of each typology, which is generally low for all school buildings in Italy, is described, and some possible retrofit strategies are outlined. A brief note about the cost-benefit balance is presented based on the experience of the Emilia-Romagna Regional Administration, which completed a vulnerability analysis of 2,700 strategic buildings, including schools, between 1989 and 1990.
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