The relationship between school size and students' achievement in reading and mathematics by school level and gender was studied in order to illuminate issues of school size and equity and alternatives such as school-within-a-school plans. Data on 251,049 students from kindergarten through 12th grade were collected from 291 elementary, middle, and high schools in an urban Texas district. Correlations between academic achievement and school size were determined. For minority students, the effects of school size were mixed, with positive correlations for some groups at some levels that were not sustained at other levels. Findings do show that female students are negatively affected by school size in reading and mathematics at elementary, middle, and high school levels, while negative impact on males is only seen at the high school level. Previous research and the findings of this study suggest that smaller school sizes and smaller class sizes help educators understand and work with their students.
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